Research Article

Online sports betting in universities: Does online sports betting addictions impact the academic achievements and social relations of students?

Stevens Justice Avenyo 1 , Nelson Saviour Kwashie 1 , John Demuyakor 1 *
More Detail
1 Department of Communication Studies, Faculty of IT and Communication Studies, University of Professional Studies, Accra, GHANA* Corresponding Author
Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), 2024, ep2402, https://doi.org/10.30935/jdet/14039
Published Online: 19 December 2023, Published: 01 January 2024
OPEN ACCESS   620 Views   428 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

The debate on the effects of online sports betting addictions on the academic achievements and social relations of many students in higher educational institutions has dominated most public discourse in recent years in Ghana. Ghana and many other African countries have declared online sports betting addictions among students as a national security emergency. Therefore, the researchers grounded this study on gaming theory, to explore the relationship between online sports betting addictions, academic achievements, and social relations among university students (n=245 & aged 18-25). The study adopted stratified random sampling to select 245 level 100 and 200 students, while five universities were purposively sampled. The universities include Ghana Telecommunication University, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Ghana, Ghana Communication University, and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration. Regression analysis and structural modeling were adopted to test three hypotheses and validate the study model. The testing of H1 and H2 established a significant negative relationship between online sports betting addictions, academic achievement, and the social relationships of students. H3, however, reported some differences between male and female students’ online sports betting addictions and their social relations, as well as academic achievements. Based on the findings, this study concludes that online sports betting addictions among university students have negative academic and social relationship implications.

CITATION (APA)

Avenyo, S. J., Kwashie, N. S., & Demuyakor, J. (2024). Online sports betting in universities: Does online sports betting addictions impact the academic achievements and social relations of students?. Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), ep2402. https://doi.org/10.30935/jdet/14039

REFERENCES

  1. Acheampong, E. Y., Sarpong, E. O., & Mahamah, M. (2022). Understanding sports betting among young male student-teachers in Ghana. Journal of Gambling Issues, 49, 174-200. https://doi.org/10.4309/jgi.2022.49.8
  2. American Physiological Association. (2023). How gambling affects, the brain and who is most vulnerable to addiction. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2023/07/how-gambling-affects-the-brain
  3. Amoah-Nuamah, J., Agyemang-Duah, W., Mensah, B., & Opoku, B. (2022). University students’ reasons and attitudes towards online gambling and its implication on their lives. Journal of Gambling Studies, 39(1), 203-224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-022-10143-5
  4. Aragay, N., Pijuan, L., Cabestany, À., Ramos-Grille, I., Garrido, G., Vallès, V., & Jovell-Fernández, E. (2021). Current addiction in youth: Online sports betting. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 590554. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.590554
  5. Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is qualitative in qualitative research? Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139-160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11133-019-9413-7
  6. Bakker, E. A., Hartman, Y. A. W., Hopman, M. T. E., Hopkins, N. D., Graves, L. E. F., Dunstan, D. W., Healy, G. N., Eijsvogels, T. M. H., & Thijssen, D. H. J. (2020). Validity and reliability of subjective methods to assess sedentary behaviour in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), 75. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00972-1
  7. Baraka Policy Institute. (2020). Sports betting in Ghana: The dangers on child education. https://barakapolicy.org/sport-betting-in-ghana-the-dangers-on-child-education/
  8. Benson, G. N., Munayi, S. P., Wanjira, J., & Inyega, J. (2021). Examining the effects of online sports betting on the perceived economic wellbeing of student-athletes. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 10(7), 242-248. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i7.1435
  9. Bitanihirwe, B. K. Y., Adebisi, T., Bunn, C., Ssewanyana, D., Darby, P., & Kitchin, P. (2022). Gambling in sub-Saharan Africa: Traditional forms and emerging technologies. Current Addiction Reports, 9(4), 373-384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40429-022-00449-0
  10. Borgonovi, F. (2016). Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15-year-old students in 26 countries. Journal of Adolescence, 48(1), 45-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.01.004
  11. Brooks, G. A., & Clark, L. (2023). The gamblers of the future? Migration from loot boxes to gambling in a longitudinal study of young adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 141, 107605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107605
  12. Cochran, WG (1963): Sampling techniques. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
  13. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE.
  14. Demuyakor, J. (2021). Battling underaged online video gamers: Probing the negative effects of online video gaming addictions on young adolescents. Asian Journal of Media and Communication, 5(2), 3. https://doi.org/10.20885/asjmc.vol5.iss2.art3
  15. Digital 2023: Ghana. (2023). DataReportal–Global digital insights. https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2023-ghana
  16. Digital Watch. (2021). China passed a law to restrict video games for children. https://dig.watch/updates/china-passes-law-restrict-video-games-children
  17. Gastwirth, J. L., Gel, Y. R., & Miao, W. (2009). The impact of Levene’s test of equality of variances on statistical theory and practice. Statistical Science, 24(3), 343-360. https://doi.org/10.1214/09-STS301
  18. Ghana Statistical Service. (2021). Population and housing census. www.ghana+statistical+service+population+and+housing+censu
  19. Glozah, F. N., Tolchard, B., & Pevalin, D. J. (2021). Participation and attitudes towards gambling in Ghanaian youth: An exploratory analysis of risk and protective factors. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 33(4), 20180175. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2018-0175
  20. Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, J. (2002). The social impact of the Internet gambling. Social Science Computer Review, 20(3), 312-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/08939302020003008
  21. Groves, R. M.. (2009). Survey methodology. Wiley.
  22. Håkansson, A., & Widinghoff, C. (2020). Gender differences in problem gamblers in an online gambling setting. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 681-691. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S248540
  23. Kelley, K., & Lai, K. (2011). Accuracy in parameter estimation for the root mean square error of approximation: Sample size planning for narrow confidence intervals. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2011.543027
  24. Kheradmand, A., Zamani, B., Hedayati, N., Cheshomi, M., & Abedi, A. (2012). P-45–Comparing the social skills of students addicted to computer games with normal students. European Psychiatry, 27, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-9338(12)74212-8
  25. Knief, U., & Forstmeier, W. (2021). Violating the normality assumption may be the lesser of two evils. Behavior Research Methods, 53(6), 2576-2590. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-021-01587-5
  26. Kyei-Gyamfi, S., Coffie, D., Abiaw, M. O., Hayford, P., Martey, J. O., & Kyei-Arthur, F. (2022). Prevalence, predictors, and consequences of gambling on children in Ghana. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 2248. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14750-0
  27. Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260802669458
  28. Lieberoth, A., & Fiskaali, A. (2021). Can worried parents predict the effects of video games on their children? A case-control study of cognitive abilities, addiction indicators, and wellbeing. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 586699. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.586699
  29. Lopez-Fernandez, O., Williams, A. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Kuss, D. J. (2019). Female gaming, gaming addiction, and the role of women within gaming culture: A narrative literature review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00454
  30. Malek, A., Ninčević, M., & Jurić Vukelić, D. (2019). The role of playing video games on school achievement. Communication Management Review, 03(02), 54-71. https://doi.org/10.22522/cmr20180234
  31. Montiel, I., Ortega-Barón, J., Basterra-González, A., González-Cabrera, J., & Machimbarrena, J. M. (2021). Problematic online gambling among adolescents: A systematic review about prevalence and related measurement issues. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 10(3), 566-586. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2021.00055
  32. Noble, N., Freund, M., Hill, D., White, V., Leigh, L., Lambkin, D., Scully, M., & Sanson-Fisher, R. (2022). Exposure to gambling promotions and gambling behaviors in Australian secondary school students. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 16, 100439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2022.100439
  33. Odame, S. K., Quarshie, E. N.-B., Oti-Boadi, M., Andoh-Arthur, J., & Asante, K. O. (2021). Adolescent problem gambling in rural Ghana: Prevalence and gender differentiation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 37(1), 83-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09987-6
  34. Petry, N. M., & Gonzalez-Ibanez, A. (2015). Internet gambling in problem gambling college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(2), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-013-9432-3
  35. Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2017). A large-scale test of the Goldilocks hypothesis: Quantifying the relations between digital-screen use and the mental well-being of adolescents. Psychological Science, 28(2), 204-215. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616678438
  36. Russell, A. M. T., Langham, E., & Hing, N. (2018). Social influences normalize gambling-related harm among higher-risk gamblers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(4), 1100-1111. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.139
  37. Sirola, A., Kaakinen, M., Savolainen, I., Paek, H.-J., Zych, I., & Oksanen, A. (2021). Online identities and social influence in social media gambling exposure: A four-country study on young people. Telematics and Informatics, 60, 101582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2021.101582
  38. Spicer, S. G., Fullwood, C., Close, J., Nicklin, L. L., Lloyd, J., & Lloyd, H. (2022). Loot boxes and problem gambling: Investigating the “gateway hypothesis.” Addictive Behaviors, 131, 107327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107327
  39. Statista. (2021). Africa: Gambling among the youth. https://www.statista.com/statistics/1305048/gambling-among-the-youth-in-africa-by-country/
  40. Sundberg, M. (2018). Online gaming, loneliness, and friendships among adolescents and adults with ASD. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.10.020
  41. Turel, O., Romashkin, A., & Morrison, K. M. (2016). Health outcomes of information system use lifestyles among adolescents: Videogame addiction, sleep curtailment, and cardio-metabolic deficiencies. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0154764. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154764
  42. UNICEF. (2017). How does the time children spend using digital technology impact their mental well-being, social relationships, and physical activity? An evidence-focused literature review. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/Children-digital-technology-wellbeing.pdf
  43. Ward, M. R. (2020). Adolescent video game playing and fighting over the long-term. Contemporary Economic Policy, 38(3), 460-473. https://doi.org/10.1111/coep.12451
  44. Wittek, C. T., Finserås, T. R., Pallesen, S., Mentzoni, R. A., Hanss, D., Griffiths, M. D., & Molde, H. (2016). Prevalence and predictors of video game addiction: A study based on a national representative sample of gamers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(5), 672-686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-015-9592-8