Review Article

Opportunities, challenges, and strategies for using ChatGPT in higher education: A literature review

Sarin Sok 1 * , Kimkong Heng 2
More Detail
1 University of Puthisastra, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA2 Paññāsāstra University of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, CAMBODIA* Corresponding Author
Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), 2024, ep2401, https://doi.org/10.30935/jdet/14027
Published Online: 14 December 2023, Published: 01 January 2024
OPEN ACCESS   1550 Views   1083 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)

ABSTRACT

While there is a growing body of research on chat generative pre-trained transformer (ChatGPT) in education, there appears to be little research that provides a comprehensive review of challenges, opportunities, and strategies for the effective utilization of ChatGPT in higher education. This study aims to fill this research gap by focusing on the opportunities, challenges, and strategies for using ChatGPT in higher education. The study adopted a literature review approach and employed document analysis as a research design. It reviewed various types of documents, particularly research articles, published since 2022 when ChatGPT was launched. Based on the extensive review, the study shows that ChatGPT offers a variety of opportunities for higher education, including assessment innovation, instructional support, remote learning support, research design and development support, academic writing support, and administrative assistance and productivity. However, ChatGPT also presents a number of challenges and issues related to academic integrity, security and privacy, reliance on artificial intelligence, learning assessment, and information accuracy. The study offers a set of recommendations for the effective utilization of ChatGPT in higher education. It concludes that the application of ChatGPT in higher education presents both benefits and challenges; thus, efforts and strategies are needed to ensure the effective use of ChatGPT for academic purposes.

CITATION (APA)

Sok, S., & Heng, K. (2024). Opportunities, challenges, and strategies for using ChatGPT in higher education: A literature review. Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), ep2401. https://doi.org/10.30935/jdet/14027

REFERENCES

  1. Adiguzel, T., Kaya, M. H., & Cansu, F. K. (2023). Revolutionizing education with AI: Exploring the transformative potential of ChatGPT. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(3), ep429. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/13152
  2. AlAfnan, M. A., Dishari, S., Jovic, M., & Lomidze, K. (2023). ChatGPT as an educational tool: Opportunities, challenges, and recommendations for communication, business writing, and composition courses. Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Technology, 3(2), 60-68. https://doi.org/10.37965/jait.2023.0184
  3. Alneyadi, S., & Wardat, Y. (2023). ChatGPT: Revolutionizing student achievement in the electronic magnetism unit for eleventh-grade students in Emirates schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(4), ep448. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/13417
  4. Alshater, M. (2022). Exploring the role of artificial intelligence in enhancing academic performance: A case study of ChatGPT. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4312358
  5. Anders, B. A. (2023). Why ChatGPT is such a big deal for education. C2C Digital Magazine, 1(18), 4.
  6. Anderson, N., Belavy, D. L., Perle, S. M., Hendricks, S., Hespanhol, L., Verhagen, E., & Memon, A. R. (2023). AI did not write this manuscript, or did it? Can we trick the AI text detector into generated texts? The potential future of ChatGPT and AI in sports & exercise medicine manuscript generation. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 9, e001568. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2023-001568
  7. Atlas, S. (2023). ChatGPT for higher education and professional development: A guide to conversational AI. University of Rhode Island. https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/cba_facpubs/548
  8. Baidoo-Anu, D., & Ansah, L. O. (2023). Education in the era of generative artificial intelligence (AI): Understanding the potential benefits of ChatGPT in promoting teaching and learning. Journal of AI, 7(1), 52-62. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4337484
  9. Chakravarti, A. (2023). Even ChatGPT believes it can never replace human writers as it lacks creativity, emotions and sensitivity. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/technology/features/story/even-chatgpt-believes-it-can-never-replace-human-writers-as-it-lacks-creativity-emotions-and-sensitivity-2324174-2023-01-20
  10. Chaudhry, I. S., Sarwary, S. A. M., El Refae, G. A., & Chabchoub, H. (2023). Time to revisit existing student’s performance evaluation approach in higher education sector in a new era of ChatGPT–A case study. Cogent Education, 10(1), 2210461. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2023.2210461
  11. Choi, E. P. H., Lee, J. J., Ho, M., Kwok, J. Y. Y., & Lok, K. Y. W. (2023). Chatting or cheating? the impacts of ChatGPT and other artificial intelligence language models on nurse education. Nurse Education Today, 125, 105796. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2023.105796
  12. Chukwuere, J. E. (2023). ChatGPT: The game changer for higher education institutions. Jozac Academic Voice, 3, 22-27.
  13. Coffey, A. (2014). Analysing documents. In U. Flick (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative data analysis (pp. 367-379). SAGE. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446282243.n25
  14. Cooper, G. (2023). Examining science education in ChatGPT: An exploratory study of generative artificial intelligence. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 32(3), 444-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-023-10039-y
  15. Cotton, D. R. E., Cotton, P. A., & Shipway, J. R. (2023). Chatting and cheating: Ensuring academic integrity in the era of ChatGPT. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2023.2190148
  16. Cox, C., & Tzoc, E. (2023). ChatGPT: Implications for academic libraries. College & Research Libraries News, 84(3), 99-102. https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.84.3.99
  17. Crawford, J., Cowling, M., & Allen, K. A. (2023). Leadership is needed for ethical ChatGPT: Character, assessment, and learning using artificial intelligence (AI). Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 20(3), 02. https://doi.org/10.53761/1.20.3.02
  18. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE.
  19. Day, T. (2023). A preliminary investigation of fake peer-reviewed citations and references generated by ChatGPT. The Professional Geographer. https://doi.org/10.1080/00330124.2023.2190373
  20. Dergaa, I., Chamari, K., Zmijewski, P., & Ben Saad, H. (2023). From human writing to artificial intelligence generated text: Examining the prospects and potential threats of ChatGPT in academic writing. Biology of Sport, 40(2), 615-622. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2023.125623
  21. Donmez, I., Idin, S., & Gulen, S. (2023). Conducting academic research with the ai interface chatgpt: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of STEAM Education, 6(2), 101-118.
  22. Dwivedi, Y. K., Kshetri, N., Hughes, L., Slade, E. L., Jeyaraj, A., Kar, A. K., Baabdullah, A. M., Koohang, A., Raghavan, V., Ahuja, M., Albanna, H., Albashrawi, M. A., Al-Busaidi, A. S., Balakrishnan, J., Barlette, Y., Basu, S., Bose, I., Brooks, L., Buhalis, D., . . ., & Wright, R. (2023). Opinion paper: “So what if ChatGPT wrote it?” Multidisciplinary perspectives on opportunities, challenges and implications of generative conversational AI for research, practice and policy. International Journal of Information Management, 71, 102642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2023.102642
  23. Eke, D. O. (2023). ChatGPT and the rise of generative AI: Threat to academic integrity? Journal of Responsible Technology, 13, 100060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrt.2023.100060
  24. Elsen-Rooney, M. (2023). New York City Education Department blocks ChatGPT on school devices, networks. Chalkbeat New York. https://ny.chalkbeat.org/2023/1/3/23537987/nyc-schools-ban-chatgpt-writing-artificial-intelligence
  25. Farrokhnia, M., Banihashem, S. K., Noroozi, O., & Wals, A. (2023). A SWOT analysis of ChatGPT: Implications for educational practice and research. Innovations in Education and Teaching International. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2023.2195846
  26. Fauzi, F., Tuhuteru, L., Sampe, F., Ausat, A. M. A., & Hatta, H. R. (2023). Analysing the role of ChatGPT in improving student productivity in higher education. Journal on Education, 5(4), 14886-14891. https://doi.org/10.31004/joe.v5i4.2563
  27. Firaina, R., & Sulisworo, D. (2023). Exploring the usage of ChatGPT in higher education: Frequency and impact on productivity. Buletin Edukasi Indonesia [Indonesian Education Bulletin], 2(01), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.56741/bei.v2i01.310
  28. Firat, M. (2023). What ChatGPT means for universities: Perceptions of scholars and students. Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 57-63. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2023.6.1.22
  29. Flanagin, A., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Berkwits, M., & Christiansen, S. L. (2023). Nonhuman “authors” and implications for the integrity of scientific publication and medical knowledge. JAMA, 329(8), 637-639. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2023.1344
  30. Gilson, A., Safranek, C. W., Huang, T., Socrates, V., Chi, L., Taylor, R. A., & Chartash, D. (2023). How does ChatGPT perform on the United States medical licensing examination? the implications of large language models for medical education and knowledge assessment. JMIR Medical Education, 9, e45312. https://doi.org/10.2196/45312
  31. Gimpel, H., Hall, K., Decker, S., Eymann, T., Lämmermann, L., Mädche, A., Röglinger, M., Ruiner, C., Schoch, M., Schoop, M., Urbach, N., & Vandrik, S. (2023). Unlocking the power of generative AI models and systems such asGPT-4 and ChatGPT for higher education. Universität Hohenheim. http://opus.unihohenheim.de/volltexte/2023/2146/
  32. Gordijn, B., & Have, H. T. (2023). ChatGPT: Evolution or revolution? Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy, 26, 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-023-10136-0
  33. Graf, A., & Bernardi, R. E. (2023). ChatGPT in research: Balancing ethics, transparency and advancement. Neuroscience, 515, 71-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2023.02.008
  34. Halaweh, M. (2023). ChatGPT in education: Strategies for responsible implementation. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(2), ep421. https://doi.org/10.30935/cedtech/13036
  35. Haleem, A., Javaid, M., & Singh, R. P. (2022). An era of ChatGPT as a significant futuristic support tool: A study on features, abilities, and challenges. BenchCouncil Transactions on Benchmarks, Standards and Evaluations, 2(4), 100089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbench.2023.100089
  36. Hu, K. (2023). ChatGPT sets record for fastest-growing user base–Analyst note. Nasdaq. https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/chatgpt-sets-record-for-fastest-growing-user-base-analyst-note
  37. Hügle, T. (2023). The wide range of opportunities for large language models such as ChatGPT in rheumatology. Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases Open, 9(2), e003105. https://doi.org/10.1136/rmdopen-2023-003105
  38. Jarrah, A. M., Wardat, Y., & Fidalgo, P. (2023). Using ChatGPT in academic writing is (not) a form of plagiarism: What does the literature say? Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 13(4), e202346. https://doi.org/10.30935/ojcmt/13572
  39. Karakose, T. (2023). The utility of ChatGPT in educational research–Potential opportunities and pitfalls. Educational Process: International Journal, 12(2), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2023.122.1
  40. Karakose, T., Demirkol, M., Aslan, N., Kose, H., & Yirci, R. (2023). A conversation with ChatGPT about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education: Comparative review based on human–AI collaboration. Educational Process: International Journal, 12(3), 7-25. https://doi.org/10.22521/edupij.2023.123.1
  41. Kasneci, E., Sessler, K., Küchemann, S., Bannert, M., Dementieva, D., Fischer, F., Gasser, U., Groh, G., Günnemann, S., Hüllermeier, E., Krusche, S., Kutyniok, G., Michaeli, T., Nerdel, C., Pfeffer, J., Poquet, O., Sailer, M., Schmidt, A., Seidel, T., & Kasneci, G. (2023). ChatGPT for good? on opportunities and challenges of large language models for education. Learning and Individual Differences, 103, 102274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2023.102274
  42. Khan, R. A., Jawaid, M., Khan, A. R., & Sajjad, M. (2023). ChatGPT–Reshaping medical education and clinical management. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 39(2), 605-607. https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.39.2.7653
  43. Kitamura, F. C. (2023). ChatGPT is shaping the future of medical writing but still requires human judgment. Radiology, 307(2), e230171. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.230171
  44. Kraugusteeliana, K., Indriana, I. H., Krisnanik, E., Muliawati, A., & Irmanda, H. N. (2023). Utilization of ChatGPT’s artificial intelligence in improving the quality and productivity of lecturers’ work. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Konseling [Journal of Education and Counseling], 5(2), 3245-3249.
  45. Kung, T. H., Cheatham, M., Medenilla, A., Sillos, C., De Leon, L., Elepaño, C., Madriaga, M., Aggabao, R., Diaz-Candido, G., Maningo, J., & Tseng, V. (2023). Performance of ChatGPT on USMLE: Potential for AI-assisted medical education using large language models. PLOS Digital Health, 2(2), e0000198. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000198
  46. Lee, H. (2023). The rise of ChatGPT: Exploring its potential in medical education. Anatomical Sciences Education, 00, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.2270
  47. Liebrenz, M., Schleifer, R., Buadze, A., Bhugra, D., & Smith, A. (2023). Generating scholarly content with ChatGPT: Ethical challenges for medical publishing. Lancet Digit Health, 5(3), e105-e106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00019-5
  48. Lo, C. K. (2023). What is the impact of ChatGPT on education? A rapid review of the literature. Education Sciences, 13(4), 410. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040410
  49. Loh, E. (2023). ChatGPT and generative AI chatbots: Challenges and opportunities for science, medicine and medical leaders. BMJ Leader, 0, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/leader-2023-000797
  50. Lund, B. D., & Wang, T. (2023). Chatting about ChatGPT: How may AI and GPT impact academia and libraries? Library Hi Tech News, 40(3), 26-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHTN-01-2023-0009
  51. Lund, B. D., Wang, T., Mannuru, N. R., Nie, B., Shimray, S., & Wang, Z. (2023). ChatGPT and a new academic reality: Artificial intelligence-written research papers and the ethics of the large language models in scholarly publishing. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 74(5), 570-581. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24750
  52. Malik, A., Khan, M. L., & Hussain, K. (2023). How is ChatGPT transforming academia? examining its impact on teaching, research, assessment, and learning. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4413516
  53. Megahed, F. M., Chen, Y. J., Ferris, J. A., Knoth, S., & Jones-Farmer, L. A. (2023). How generative AI models such as ChatGPT can be (mis)used in SPC practice, education, and research? An exploratory study. Quality Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1080/08982112.2023.2206479
  54. Mizumoto, A., & Eguchi, M. (2023). Exploring the potential of using an AI language model for automated essay scoring. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 100050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmal.2023.100050
  55. Neumann, M., Rauschenberger, M., & Schön, E. M. (2023). “We need to talk about ChatGPT”: The future of AI and higher education. In Proceedings of the 2023 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering Education for the Next Generation. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SEENG59157.2023.00010
  56. Paré, G., & Kitsiou, S. (2017). Methods for literature reviews. In F. Lau, & C. Kuziemsky (Eds.), Handbook of eHealth evaluation: An evidence-based approach (pp. 157-180). University of Victoria.
  57. Pavlik, J. V. (2023). Collaborating with ChatGPT: Considering the implications of generative artificial intelligence for journalism and media education. Journalism & Mass Communication Educator, 78(1), 84-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/10776958221149577
  58. Qadir, J. (2023). Engineering education in the era of ChatGPT: Promise and pitfalls of generative AI for education. In Proceedings of the 2023 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (pp. 1-9). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON54358.2023.10125121
  59. Rahimi, F., & Abadi, T. B. A. (2023). ChatGPT and publication ethics. Archives of Medical Research, 54(3), 272-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2023.03.004
  60. Rahman, M. M., Terano, H. J., Rahman, M. N., Salamzadeh, A., & Rahaman, M. S. (2023). ChatGPT and academic research: A review and recommendations based on practical examples. Journal of Education, Management and Development Studies, 3(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.52631/jemds.v3i1.175
  61. Rahman, M. M., & Watanobe, Y. (2023). ChatGPT for education and research: Opportunities, threats, and strategies. Applied Sciences, 13(9), 5783. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095783
  62. Rasul, T., Nair, S., Kalendra, D., Robin, M., de Oliveira Santini, F., Ladeira, W. J., Sun, M., Day, I., Rather, R. A., & Heathcote, L. (2023). The role of ChatGPT in higher education: Benefits, challenges, and future research directions. Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2023.6.1.29
  63. Ray, P. P. (2023). ChatGPT: A comprehensive review on background, applications, key challenges, bias, ethics, limitations and future scope. Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems, 3, 121-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iotcps.2023.04.003
  64. Rudolph, J., Tan, S., & Tan, S. (2023). ChatGPT: Bullshit spewer or the end of traditional assessments in higher education? Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 342-363. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2023.6.1.9
  65. Sabzalieva, E., & Valentini, A. (2023). ChatGPT and artificial intelligence in higher education: Quick start guide. UNESCO. https://eduq.info/xmlui/handle/11515/38828
  66. Sallam, M. (2023). ChatGPT utility in healthcare education, research, and practice: Systematic review on the promising perspectives and valid concerns. Healthcare, 11(6), 887. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11060887
  67. Shoufan, A. (2023). Exploring students’ perceptions of ChatGPT: Thematic analysis and follow-up survey. IEEE Access, 11, 38805-38818. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3268224
  68. Sok, S., & Heng, K. (2023). ChatGPT for education and research: A review of benefits and risks. Cambodian Journal of Educational Research, 3(1), 110-121. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4378735
  69. Sullivan, M., Kelly, A., & McLaughlan, P. (2023). ChatGPT in higher education: Considerations for academic integrity and student learning. Journal of Applied Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2023.6.1.17
  70. Susnjak, T. (2022). ChatGPT: The end of online exam integrity? arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2212.09292
  71. Tajik, E., & Tajik, F. (2023). A comprehensive examination of the potential application of ChatGPT in higher education institutions. TechRxiv. https://doi.org/10.36227/techrxiv.22589497
  72. Talan, T., & Kalinkara, Y. (2023). Yükseköğrenimde yapay zekanın rolü: Anatomi dersi için ChatGPT değerlendirmesi [The role of artificial intelligence in higher education: ChatGPT assessment for anatomy course]. Uluslararası Yönetim Bilişim Sistemleri ve Bilgisayar Bilimleri Dergisi [International Journal of Management Information Systems and Computer Sciences], 7(1), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.33461/uybisbbd.1244777
  73. Thurzo, A., Strunga, M., Urban, R., Surovková, J., & Afrashtehfar, K. I. (2023). Impact of artificial intelligence on dental education: A review and guide for curriculum update. Education Sciences, 13(2), 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13020150
  74. Tlili, A., Shehata, B., Adarkwah, M. A., Bozkurt, A., Hickey, D. T., Huang, R., & Agyemang, B. (2023). What if the devil is my guardian angel: ChatGPT as a case study of using chatbots in education. Smart Learning Environments, 10, 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-023-00237-x
  75. Tong, A. (2023). Exclusive: ChatGPT traffic slips again for third month in a row. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/technology/chatgpt-traffic-slips-again-third-month-row-2023-09-07/
  76. Topsakal, O., & Topsakal, E. (2022). Framework for a foreign language teaching software for children utilizing AR, Voicebots and ChatGPT (large language models). The Journal of Cognitive Systems, 7(2), 33-38. https://doi.org/10.52876/jcs.1227392
  77. Turnitin. (2023). Turnitin announces AI writing detector and AI writing resource center for educators. Turnitin. https://www.turnitin.com/press/turnitin-announces-ai-writing-detector-and-ai-writing-resource-center-for-educators
  78. Vaishya, R., Misra, A., & Vaish, A. (2023). ChatGPT: Is this version good for healthcare and research? Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 17(4), 102744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2023.102744
  79. van Dis, E. A., Bollen, J., Zuidema, W., van Rooij, R., & Bockting, C. L. (2023). ChatGPT: Five priorities for research. Nature, 614(7947), 224-226. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-00288-7
  80. Wang, X., Gong, Z., Wang, G., Jia, J., Xu, Y., Zhao, J., Fan, Q., Wu, S., Hu, W., & Li, X. (2023). ChatGPT performs on the Chinese national medical licensing examination. Journal of Medical Systems, 47(1), 86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-023-01961-0
  81. Wardat, Y., Tashtoush, M. A., AlAli, R., & Jarrah, A. M. (2023). ChatGPT: A revolutionary tool for teaching and learning mathematics. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(7), em2286. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/13272
  82. Wen, J., & Wang, W. (2023). The future of ChatGPT in academic research and publishing: A commentary for clinical and translational medicine. Clinical and Translational Medicine, 13(3), e1207. https://doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.1207
  83. Xames, M. D., & Shefa, J. (2023). ChatGPT for research and publication: Opportunities and challenges. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.37074/jalt.2023.6.1.20
  84. Yau, C., & Chan, K. (2023). University of Hong Kong temporarily bans students from using ChatGPT, other AI-based tools for coursework. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/education/article/3210650/university-hong-kong-temporarily-bans-students-using-chatgpt-other-ai-based-tools-coursework
  85. Zhai, X. (2023). ChatGPT for next generation science learning. XRDS: Crossroads, The ACM Magazine for Students, 29(3), 42-46. https://doi.org/10.1145/3589649
  86. Zhuo, T. Y., Huang, Y., Chen, C., & Xing, Z. (2023). Exploring AI ethics of ChatGPT: A diagnostic analysis. arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2301.12867