Research Article

Think-pair-share based flipped classroom: A model for improving students’ learning achievement and self-efficacy

Kamaludeen Samaila 1 2 * , Chau Kien Tsong 1 , Mona Masood 1 , Brandford Bervell 3
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1 School of Instructional Technology and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, MALAYSIA2 Department of Science Education, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, NIGERIA3 University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GHANA* Corresponding Author
Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), 2024, ep2410,
Published Online: 27 March 2024, Published: 01 April 2024
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The lack of clear instruction and teaching strategy during the in-class learning activities of flipped classroom (FC) model has affected the model’s efficacy. This study aims to improve FC model by proposing the think-pair-share-based flipped classroom model (TPS-FCM). This study investigates the effect of TPS-FCM on students’ academic achievement and self-efficacy in an information and communications technology (ICT) in education course. One hundred and seventy-three students were involved in the quasi-experimental study. The students in the experimental group (n=91) learned with TPS-FCM, and students in the control group (n=82) used the conventional flipped classroom model (CFCM). Pre-test, post-test, and survey were employed. Results showed that TPS-FCM significantly improved students’ ICT learning achievement and self-efficacy compared to CFCM. Gender was found to have been significantly affected by TPS-FCM in students’ learning achievement but not in self-efficacy. This study recommends think-pair-share (TPS) strategy to improve in-class activities in FC model. Moreover, the study has limitations because of using two different teachers, which might affect students’ learning achievement and self-efficacy. Nonetheless, this study contributed that integrating TPS into FC model improves in-class learning activities. Integrating TPS into the in-class learning activities proved the budding support to enhance the efficacy of FC model. Based on the results of this study, the authors suggested that flipped practitioners can use the think-pair-share strategy to minimize in-class issues, particularly the lack of clear instruction and teaching strategy. Many practical studies of FC model have already been conducted. The originality of this work is in the fact that it proposes a suitable strategy (TPS) to improve the in-class learning activities of the model. The study also explores the effect of the proposed model on students’ learning achievement and self-efficacy, which enrich the current literature.


Samaila, K., Tsong, C. K., Masood, M., & Bervell, B. (2024). Think-pair-share based flipped classroom: A model for improving students’ learning achievement and self-efficacy. Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 4(1), ep2410.


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