Research Article

Psychometric Properties of Remote Teaching Efficacy Scale in Employed Filipino Teachers during COVID-19 Crisis

Michael B. Cahapay 1 * , Thalia Carreon 2, Kenneth Garcia 3, Erwin Rotas 4, Romina Amador 5, Jeorge Louie Anoba 6
More Detail
1 Mindanao State University, PHILIPPINES2 Balite Elementary School, PHILIPPINES3 Romana C. Acharon Central Elementary School, PHILIPPINES4 Department of Education, General Santos City, PHILIPPINES5 Severo T. Inong Elementary School, PHILIPPINES6 Sto. Niño Elementary School, PHILIPPINES* Corresponding Author
Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 2022, 2(1), ep2202,
OPEN ACCESS   448 Views   260 Downloads
Download Full Text (PDF)


This paper describes the level of remote teaching efficacy of teachers amid the COVID-19 crisis and assesses the psychometric properties of the proposed Remote Teaching Efficacy (RTE) Scale. A 10-item scale originally used in the context of online teaching was modified to suit the context of the current massive migration to emergency remote teaching. A sample of 1,061 K to 12 employed Filipino teachers were surveyed. The items of the scale were subjected to tests of internal consistency and factor analysis. The result showed that, despite the global crisis affecting the educational system, the teachers have a high level of remote teaching efficacy. On the other hand, RTE Scale demonstrated acceptable indices of corrected item-total correlations between .73 and .82. A high overall Cronbach’s alpha at .95 was also sought, supported by excellent factor loadings between .79 and .84. Thus, this paper concludes that RTE Scale is a reliable and valid scale that can be used to measure the remote teaching efficacy of teachers.


Cahapay, M. B., Carreon, T., Garcia, K., Rotas, E., Amador, R., & Anoba, J. L. (2022). Psychometric Properties of Remote Teaching Efficacy Scale in Employed Filipino Teachers during COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Digital Educational Technology, 2(1), ep2202.


  1. Artino, A. R., & McCoach, D. B. (2008). Development and initial validation of the online learning value and self-efficacy scale. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(3), 279-303.
  2. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (pp. 71-81). Academic Press.
  3. Barni, D., Danioni, F., & Benevene, P. (2019). Teachers’ self-efficacy: The role of personal values and motivations for teaching. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1645.
  4. Beteille, T. (2020). Supporting teachers during the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. World Bank Blogs.
  5. Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social science research: Principles, methods, and practices. Textbooks Collection 3.
  6. Black, M. R. (2019). A comparative analysis of teacher efficacy scores of online business faculty based on educational background [Doctoral dissertation, Liberty University].
  7. Blair, T. (2020). The world was not prepared for COVID-19. We should learn the lessons and change. Institute for Global Change.
  8. Cahapay, M. B. (2020). A reconceptualization of learning space as schools reopen amid and after COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 269-276.
  9. Cahapay, M. B. (2021). Philippine basic education learning continuity plan: Creating space for indigenous peoples toward inclusive post-COVID-19 education. International Journal of Pedagogical Development and Lifelong Learning, 2(1), ep2102.
  10. Cahapay, M. B., & Labrador, M. G. P. (2021). Experiments gone wrong? Lived experience of Filipino teachers in remote science education amid COVID-19 crisis. Asian Journal of Science Education, 3(2), 90-101.
  11. Cardullo, V., Wang, C.-h, Burton, M., & Dong, J. (2021). K-12 teachers’ remote teaching self-efficacy during the pandemic. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 4(1), 32-45.
  12. Chan, J. T. (2020). Snowball sampling and sample selection in a social network. Advances in Econometrics, 61-80.
  13. Corry, M., & Stella, J. (2018). Teacher self-efficacy in online education: A review of the literature. Research in Learning Technology, 26, 2047.
  14. Cortez, P. A., Joseph, S. J., Das, N., Bhandari, S. S., & Shoib, S. (2020). Tools to measure the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: What do we have in the platter? Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 102371.
  15. Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects 49, 91-96.
  16. Dela Cruz, L. I. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on teachers’ mental health: Managing psychological and emotional well-being. LearnTech Asia.
  17. Di Pietro, G., Biagi, F., Costa, P., Karpiński Z., & Mazza, J. (2020). The likely impact of COVID-19 on education: Reflections based on the existing literature and international datasets. EUR 30275 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
  18. Dizon, G. (2020). Challenges vs solutions: Are 28.5 million Filipino students ready for distance learning? PhilStar Global.
  19. Gosselin, K. P. (2016). Development and psychometric exploration of the online teaching self-efficacy scale. Texas Tech University Library.
  20. Hernando-Malipot, M. (2020). Finding ways to make distance learning better. AHA! Learning Center.
  21. Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency online teaching and online learning. Educause Review.
  22. Horvitz, B., Beach, A., Anderson, M., & Xia, J. (2014). Examination of faculty self-efficacy related to online teaching. Innovative Higher Education, 40(4), 305-316.
  23. Joaquin, J., Biana, H., & Dacela, M. A. (2020). The Philippine higher education sector in the time of COVID-19. Frontiers in Education, 5, 576371.
  24. Knekta, E., Runyon, C., & Eddy, S. (2019). One size doesn’t fit all: Using factor analysis to gather validity evidence when using surveys in your research. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 18(1), 1-17.
  25. Kraft, M. A., Simon, N., & Lyon, M. A. (2020). Sustaining a sense of success: The importance of teacher working conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. EdWorkingPaper, 20-279.
  26. Kuan, G., Kueh, Y. C., Abdullah, N., & Tai, E. L. M. (2019). Psychometric properties of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II: Cross-cultural validation of the Malay language version. BMC Public Health, 19, 751.
  27. Larsen, T., & Samdal, O. (2012). The importance of teachers’ feelings of self-efficacy in developing their pupils’ social and emotional learning: A Norwegian study of teachers’ reactions to the Second Step program. School Psychology International 33(6), 631-645.
  28. Lazar, I., Panisoara, I., Panisoara, G., Chirca, R., & Ursu, A. (2020). Motivation and continuance intention towards online instruction among teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating effect of burnout and technostress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(21), 8002.
  29. Magsambol, B. (2020). Over 24 million Filipino students back to school during pandemic. Rappler.
  30. Mukherjee, S. P., Sinha, B. K., Chattopadhyay, A. (2018). Statistical methods in social science research. Springer.
  31. Rice, J. (2003). Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Economic Policy Institute.
  32. Robinia, K. A. (2008). Online teaching self-efficacy of nurse faculty teaching in public, accredited nursing programs in the State of Michigan [Doctoral dissertation, Western Michigan University].
  33. Robinia, K. A., & Anderson, M. L. (2010). Online teaching efficacy of nurse faculty. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26(3), 168-175.
  34. Rogers-Haverback, H. (2020). Middle level teachers quarantine, teach, and increase self-efficacy beliefs: Using theory to build practice during COVID-19. Middle Grades Review, 6(2), 6.
  35. Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48, 1273-1296.
  36. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing and elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.
  37. United Nations. (2020). Policy belief: Education during COVID-19 and beyond.
  38. World Health Organization. (2021). WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard.
  39. Zhou, M. A. (2016). Revisit of general Sself-efficacy scale: Uni- or multi-dimensional? Current Psychology, 35, 427-436.
  40. Zimmerman, W. A., & Kulikowich, J. M. (2016). Online learning self-efficacy in students with and without online learning experience. American Journal of Distance Education, 30(3), 180-191.